EPA’s environmental performance

Scope 3 GHG emissions


Natural gas – trigeneration plant

Base building natural gas – communal areas of buildings where EPA is a tenant

Base building electricity – communal areas of buildings where EPA is a tenant

Natural gas transmission and distribution losses

Electricity transmission and distribution process

Fuel extraction, production and transportation - vehicle and boat fuel

Stationary fuels – thermal generators including tri-generation and backup generators

Reticulated water

Air travel

Taxi travel

Public transport

Staff commuting

Waste

Office paper

Catering

Courier services

Printing and publication services

Natural gas – trigeneration plant
Activity data EPA’s portion of natural gas consumed by the thermal tri-generation plant as stated on invoices provided by the plant manager – expressed in gigajoules (GJ)
Calculation method

Z = Q x EF/1000

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Q is the quantity of natural gas (GJ)

EF is the full cycle emission factor (Scope 1 + Scope 3) for natural gas distributed in a pipeline which includes the effect of an oxidation factor (kg.CO2-e/GJ)

Quantity of trigeneration natural gas consumed by EPA was not directly available. As such natural gas was estimated via the following methodology:

Q = QGasT x QElecT/QElecEPA

 QGasT = Quantity of trigeneration natural gas consumed by whole building (GJ)

QElectT = Quantity of trigeneration electricity consumed by whole building (kWh)

QElecEPA = Quantity of trigeneration electricity consumed by EPA (kWh)

 

Assumptions

Where data was not available for the final months of 2017-18, estimations were made using average daily consumption, calculated using data provided for previous months.
Proportion of EPA trigeneration gas consumption to total building trigeneration gas consumption is assumed to be adequately estimated by EPA trigeneration electricity consumption to total building trigeneration electricity consumption.
To calculate EPA’s base building trigeneration electricity consumption, base building trigeneration electricity consumption for the entire building was apportioned using EPA’s net lettable area (NLA) as a portion of the total NLA for the building. Tenant data for EPA only was provided. As such, apportionment was not required.

Factors EF: 55.43 (kg.CO2-e/GJ) 
Reference

National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors conversion factors  Department of Environment and Energy.

  • Table 2: Emission factors for the consumption of natural gas 
  • Scope 3: Table 38: Scope 3 emission factors – natural gas for a product that is not ethane (inclusive of coal seam gas) (Victoria)

Base building natural gas – communal areas of buildings where EPA is a tenant
Activity data

EPA sites which consume natural gas include Carlton, CES Macleod and South West Geelong. Activity data for base building natural gas is collected for these sites only.

Natural gas consumption amounts as stated on supplier invoices or provided directly from property manager– expressed in kilowatt hours (kWh).

As EPA is not the sole tenant for each of these sites, base building natural gas data was collected separately from tenant data.

Calculation method

Z = Q x EF/1000

Where:

Z is the full cycle (scope 2 and 3) emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Q is the quantity of natural gas (GJ)

EF is the full cycle (scope 2 and 3) emission factor for Victoria (kg.CO2-e/kWh)

Assumptions

Where data was not available for final months of 2017-18, estimations were made using average daily consumption, calculated using data provided for previous months.

As EPA is not the sole tenant of these buildings, in the instance data was provided for the entire building or one floor of a building, GHG emissions were apportioned using EPA’s NLA as a portion of the total NLA for the building or floor.

Factors EF: 55.43 (kg.CO2-e/GJ)
Reference

National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors conversion factors  Department of Environment and Energy.

  • Scope 1 Table 2: Emissions factors for the consumption of natural gas (Victoria)
  • Scope 3 Table 38: Scope 3 emissions factors - natural gas for a product that is not ethane (inclusive of coal seam gas) (Victoria). 
Base building electricity – communal areas of buildings where EPA is a tenant
Activity data

Electricity consumption amounts and green power percentages as stated on supplier invoices or provided directly from property manager – expressed in kilowatt hours (kWh).

In the instance that EPA is the sole tenant for a site, electricity data covering both tenant and base building was collected. In the instance EPA is not the sole tenant for a site, base building electricity data was collected separately from tenant data. This is relevant for Carlton, Exhibition Street, CES Macleod and South West Geelong sites.

Calculation method

Z = Q x EF/1000

Where:

Z is the full cycle (scope 2 and 3) emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Q is the quantity of electricity (kWh)

EF is the full cycle (scope 2 and 3) emission factor for Victoria (kg.CO2-e/kWh)

Assumptions

Where data was not available for the final months of 2017-18, estimations were made using average daily consumption, calculated using data provided for previous months.

In the instance that EPA is the sole tenant for a building, and data was provided for the entire building or on floor of the building, GHG emissions were apportioned using EPA's NLA as a portion of the total NLA for the building or floor.

Emissions associated with purchases of green power are zero.

Factors EF: 1.18 (kg.CO2-e/GJ)

Reference

National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors conversion factors Department of Environment and Energy.

  • Table 41: Scope 2 an 3 emissions factors - consumption of purchased electricity by end users (Victoria).

 

Natural gas transmission and distribution losses
Activity data

Carlton, CES Macleod and South West Geelong consume natural gas. Activity data is relevant for these sites only.

Natural gas consumption amounts stated on supplier invoices or provided directly form property manager in excel as per scope 1 - expressed in gigajoules (GJ).

As EPA is not the sole tenant for each of these sites, tenant natural gas data was collected separately from base building data.

Calculation method

Z = Q x EF/1000

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Q Quantity of natural gas purchased (GJ)

EF Scope 3 emission factor for natural gas for a product that is not ethane (kg.CO2-e/GJ)

Assumptions

Where data was not available for final months of 2017-18, estimations were made using average daily consumption, calculated using data provided for previous months.

As EPA is not the sole tenant of these buildings, in the instance data was provided for the entire building or one floor of the building. GHG emissions were apportioned using EPA's NLA as a portion of the total NLA for the building or floor.

 Factors EF: 3.9 (kg.CO2-e/GJ)
Reference

National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors conversion factors Department of Environment and Energy.

  • Table 38: Scope 3 emissions factors - natural gas for a product that is not ethane (inclusive of coal seam gas)

Electricity transmission and distribution process
Activity data

Electricity consumption amounts and green power percentages as stated on supplier invoices or provided directly from property manager as per scope 2 - expressed in kilowatt hours (kWh). Capacity of solar panels from operations officer - expressed in kilowatts (kW).

In the instance that EPA is the sole tenant for a site, electricity data covering both tenant and base building was collected. In the instance EPA is not the sole tenant for a site, base building electricity data was collected separately from tenant data. This is relevant for Carlton, Exhibition St, CES Macleod and South West Geelong sites.

Calculation method

Z = Q x EF/1000

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Q is the quantity of electricity purchased (kWh)

EF is the scope 3 emissions factor for Victoria (kg.CO2-e/kWh)

Assumptions

Where data was not available for the final months of 2017-18, estimations were made using average daily consumption, calculated using data provided for previous months.

Data was not available for two air monitoring stations, which were unique solar instruments and powered by 100 per cent solar energy. Estimations were made using the capacity of the solar panels and average daily energy production of solar systems, as guided by the Australian PV Institute. Average daily energy production from photovoltaic cells for Boroondara, Victoria was chosen due to geographical proximity to instruments.

Data was not available for a number of AMSs. Estimations made based on known consumption of similar AMSs. In the instance EPA is not the sole tenant of the building and data was provided for the entire building or one floor of a building, GHG emissions were apportioned using EPA's NLA as a portion of the total NLA for the building or floor.

Emissions associated with purchases of green power are zero.

 Factors  EF: 0.10 (kg.CO2-e/kWh)
Reference

Average daily energy production of solar systems: PV Performance by climate region (2018) - Australian PV Institute

National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors conversion factors Department of Environment and Energy

  • Table 41: Scope 2 and 3 emissions factors - consumption of purchased electricity by end users (scope 3, Victoria - latest estimate).

Fuel extraction, production and transportation - vehicle and boat fuel
Activity data Fuel consumption amounts by fuel type as stated on vehicle fuel card reports and boat fuel invoices as per scope 1 - expressed in litres (L). Commonly used fuel types include gasoline, diesel and LPG.
Calculation method

Z = ∑(Qi×ECi× EFi/1000000)

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Qi is the quantity of fuel type (i) (L)

ECi is the energy content factor for fuel type (i) (GJ/kL)

EFi is the scope 3 emission factor for fuel type (i) (kg.CO2-e/GJ)

Assumptions ECi and EFi for blended fuels us calculated by combining the emission factors available for each fuel type included in the blended fuel. The ratio used to calculate ECi and EFi for blended fuels is the maximum standard specified for the fuel. For example, it is assumed E10 contains 10 per cent ethanol and 90 per cent gasoline while B20 contains 20 per cent diesel and 80 per cent biodiesel.
Factors

ECi: ULP = 34.2, DSL = 38.6, LPG = 26.2, E10 = 33.12, B20 = 37.80, Jet = 36.8 and Oil = 39.70 (GJ/kL)

EFi: All = 3.6 (kg.CO2-e/GJ)
Reference

National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors conversion factors - Department of Environment and Energy

  • Table 4: Fuel combustion emission factors - fuels used for transport energy purposes (post-2004 vehicles)
  • Table 40: Scope 3 emission factors - liquid fuels and certain petroleum based products fuel combustion emission factors - fuels use for transport energy purposes.

 

 

Stationary fuels – backup generator
Activity data Diesel consumption amounts as provided by the building landlord based on estimations - expressed in litres (L)
Calculation method

Z = ∑(Q×EC× EF/1000000)

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Q is the quantity of diesel (L).

EC is the energy content factor for diesel (GJ/kL)

EF is the emission factor for each gas type (j), which includes the effect of an oxidation factor, for diesel (kg.CO2-e/GJ)

Assumptions Estimated fuel use was based on a run time of 10.3 hours
Factors

EC: DSL = 38.6 (GJ/kL)

EF: DSL = 73.8 (kg.CO2-e/GJ)

Reference

National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors conversion factors - Department of Environment and Energy

  • Table 3: Fuel combustion emission factors - liquid fuels and certain petroleum based products for stationary energy purpose. 

Reticulated water
Activity data Water consumption quantities as stated on supplier invoices or provided directly from property manager  - expressed in kilolitres (kL)
Calculation method

Z = Q x EF/1000

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Q is the total quantity of water consumed (kL)

EF is the emission factor for water consumption (kg.CO2-e/kWh) as derived from data available from water authorities.

Assumptions

Where data was not available  for the final months of 2017/18, estimations were made using average daily consumption, calculated using data provided for previous months.

In the instance EPA is not the sole tenant of the building and data was provided for the entire building  and data was provided for the entire building or one floor of a building. GHG emissions were apportioned using EPA's NLA as a portion of the total NLA for the building or floor.

The emissions factor (EF) for reticulated water was developed specifically for Victoria using GHG and total supply data from Victoria's metropolitan water authorities. This methodology incorporates considerations of wholesale versus retail water providers and is as follows:

EF = ∑EIw/Qw + ∑EIR/QR

Where:

EIW = emissions intensity of wholesale retailer (W) (kg.CO2-e/kL)

QW = number of wholesale water suppliers

EIR = emissions intensity of wholesale retailer (R) (kg.CO2-e/kL)

QR = number of retail water suppliers

Where:

EI = GHGi/KLi

EI = emissions intensity of water supplier (kg.CO2-e/kL)

GHG = total GHG emissions for reporting period (i) (t.CO2-e)

KL = total water supplied for reporting period.

The GHG data (t.CO2-e) and total water supply (ML) was taken from each respective water authority's annual report for 2016-17 and are as follows:

  • Melbourne Water Corporation: 438332t.CO2-e, 428,000ML
  • City West Water: 41322t.CO2-e, 140,483ML
  • Yarra Valley Water: 11490t.CO2-e, 105,441ML
  • South East Water:  34083t.CO2-e, 137,342ML.
Fators

EF: 1.241 (kg.CO2-e/kL)

Note, as the emission factor for reticulated water (kg.CO2-e/kL) is developed using data from Victorian water authorities, it is recommended that organisations recalculate the state specific emission factor for reticulated water using state specific GHG and water supply data.

Reference

Annual Reports for Victoria’s Metropolitan Water Authorities:

Air travel
Activity data Flight transaction records as provided by EPA’s travel agent. Flight transaction records include origin, destination and distance travelled for each flight – expressed in kilometers (km)
Calculation method

 Z = ∑(Qi x EFijk/1000)

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Qi is the distance travelled (km) for flight (i)

EFijk is the emission factor for haul type (j), which includes the effect of radiative forcing, and class type (k) for flight (i) (kg.CO2-e/km)

Assumptions

Haul types are based on distances set by the United Kingdom (UK) Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA):

  • Domestic: 0-500 km
  • Short-haul: 501-3700 km
  • Long-haul: >3700 km

Emission factors for air travel are inclusion of radiative forcing

Factors

EFijk :domestic economy = 0.27867, domestic business class = 0.27867, short-haul economy class = 0.16508, short-haul business class = 0.24761, long-haul economy class = 0.14678 and long-haul business class = 0.42565 (kg.CO2-e/km)

Reference

Greenhouse gas reporting – Conversion factors 2016 (tab Business – air) - United Kingdom Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy

Taxi travel
Activity data Taxi travel expenditure data provided by Cab Charge - expressed in Australian currency, inclusive of GST ($). Data on time, origin and destination of trips were also provided.
Calculation method

Z = ∑ ((Qi-Fjk) x Rjk x EF/1000000)

 Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Qi = spend ($) on taxi trip (i) GST inclusive

Fjk = flag fall fare for state (j) at time (k) ($)

Rjk = taxi rate ($/km) for state (j) at time (k)

EF = emission factor for taxis (kg.CO2-e/km)

Where:

EF = ∑Pi x FEi x ECi x EFi

 Pi = proportion of taxis using a fuel type (i)

FEi = Fuel efficiency of taxi vehicles consuming fuel type (i) (L/km)

EFi = Full cycle emission factor (scope 1 + 3), which includes the effect of an oxidation factor, for fuel type (i) (kg.CO2-e/GJ)

 

Assumptions

Taxi rates were taken for each state's CBD. Regional taxi rates were not incorporated as these trips represented only a small proportion of total trips.

Expenditure has been multiplied by kilometres per dollar (km/$) only. As such, taxi travel emissions do not reflect that a proportion of expenditure is due to duration of trip.

To calculate the emission factor for taxis (kg.CO2-e/km), the following figures were used:

  • Pi : LPG = 95, ULP = 5 (%)
  • FEi: LPG = 0.100, ULP = 0.104 (L/km)
  • ECi: LPG = 26.2, ULP = 34.2 (GJ/kL)
  • EFi: LPG = 65.10, ULP = 73.30 (kg.CO2-e/GJ).

Fuel types used by taxis and relevant proportions were based on those typical to Victoria, as the majority of trips occurred in Victoria.

Model and make of taxis were assumed to be post-2004 for energy content and emissions factors obtained from NGA factors (July 2017) and post-2011 for fuel efficiencies obtained from the Australian Bureau of statistics (ABS) survey on motor vehicle use.

 

Factors

Flag fare ($)

FVIC: Tariff 1 (9am-5pm) = 4.20, Tariff 2 (5pm-9am) = 5.20

FNSW: Tariff 1 (6am-10pm) = 3.60, Tariff 2 (10pm-6am) = 3.60

FWA: Tariff 1 (6am-6pm) = 4.20, Tariff 2 (6pm-6am) = 6.10

FNT: Tariff 1 (6am-6pm) = 4.40, Tariff 2 (6pm-6am) = 5.50

FQLD: Tariff 1 (5am-7pm) = 2.90, Tariff 2 (7pm-12am) = 4.30, Tariff 3 (12am-5am) = 6.30

FSA: Tariff 1 (6am-7pm) = 3.70, Tariff 2 (7pm-6am) = 4.90

FTAS: Tariff 1 (6am-8pm) = 3.60, Tariff 2 (8pm-6am) = 3.60

FACT: Tariff 1 (6am-9am) = 5.00, Tariff 2 (9pm-6am) = 5.00

Taxi rates (km/$):

FVIC: Tariff 1 = 0.62, Tariff 2 = 0.56

FNSW: Tariff 1 = 0.46, Tariff 2 = 0.38

FWA: Tariff 1 = 0.58, Tariff 2 = 0.58

FNT: Tariff 1 = 0.65, Tariff 2 = 0.53

FQLD: Tariff 1 = 0.46, Tariff 2 = 0.46, Tariff 3 = 0.46

FSA: Tariff 1 = 0.53, Tariff 2  = 0.46

FTAS: Tariff 1 = 0.52, Tariff 2 = 0.43

FACT: Tariff 1 = 0.49, Tariff 2 = 0.42

Emissions factor for taxis

EF = 0.16 (kg.CO2-e/km)

Note, as the emission factor for taxis (CO2-e/km) is developed using Victorian specific proportion of LPG and ULP, it is recommended that organisations recalculate the state specific fuel factors and proportions.

Reference

 Flag fall and km/$ Taxi Rates - Taxi Fare Calculator (2018)

Proportion of taxi vehicles consuming LPG (Victoria): The Economic, Social and Environmental Contribution of the Victorian Taxi Industry (Sept 2015), SGS Economics on behalf of VTA

Fuel efficiencies: 92080 Survey of Motor Vehicle Use, Australia 12 months ended June 2016- Australian Bureau of Statistics

  • Table 14: passenger vehicles (post-2011)

National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors conversion factors  - Department of Environment and Energy

  • Table 4: Fuel combustion emission factors - fuels used for transport energy purposes (post-2004 vehicles)

Public transport
Activity data Public transport expenditure data broken down by regional and metropolitan public transport as sourced from EPA’s finance system – expressed in Australian currency ($).
Calculation method

Z = DR x EFR + QM x EFM

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

DR = Total passenger kilometres travelled by regional public transport (person.km)

EFR = Emission factor for regional public transport (t.CO2-e/person.km)

QM = Total expenditure on metropolitan public transport ($)

EFM = Emission factor for metropolitan public transport (t.CO2-e/$)

Regional public transport distance travelled

Distance travelled by regional public transport was calculated using EPA expenditure data via the following method:

DR= QR/QF x D

 Where:

QR = Total expenditure on regional public transport ($)

QF = Average expenditure per fare ($)

D = Average distance per fare (km).

Metropolitan public transport emission factor

Kilometres travelled and emission factors per dollar for metropolitan public transport were not available. As such, the following method was used to develop metropolitan public transport emission factors:

ERM= ERF/QF

 EFR = Emission factor for metropolitan public transport per fare (t.CO2-e/fare)

QF = Average expenditure per fare ($/fare)

 Where:

ERF= ∑(EFi x Di x Pi)

 Where:

ERi = Emission factor for metropolitan public transport per person.km for mode of transport (i) (t.CO2-e/person.km)

Di = EPA specific average distance travelled for mode of transport (i) (km)

Pi = Proportion of EPA trips travelled by mode of transport (i) (%)

and

 QF =  ∑Fj x Pj

Where:

Fj = Price of fare type (j) ($)

Pj = Proportion of EPA fares of fare type (j) (%)

Assumptions

 Regional travel

Average expenditure per fare ($/fare) and average distance per fare (km/fare) for regional public transport was calculated by taking the average price and distance for single fare tickets across all EPA regional sites (Bendigo, Geelong, Traralgon and Wangaratta), in 2012-2013. Average expenditure per fare in 2012-2013 was then adjusted for CPI. Price and distance travelled per fare for each EPA regional site (2012-2013) are as follows:

  • Bendigo: $27.00, 162 km
  • Geelong: $11.00, 73 km
  • Traralgon: $25.20, 158 km
  • Wangaratta: $26.60, 234 km

Emissions per person kilometer was sourced from SimaPro. SimaPro is a life cycle analysis (LCA) software package with access to a range of international life cycle databases. In the Australian context, emission factors and other life cycle data is maintained in the Australian National Life Cycle Inventory Database (AusLCI) The available AusLCI unit process for regional train travel uses electricity as the fuel for operation. As Vline trains were assumed to be the sole mode of regional transport, this process was edited in recognition that Vline trains are diesel operated. An assumption of 1.7 MJ of energy from diesel use per person.km was used, taken from another SimaPro Unit process "Rail - rural passenger/AU U", to provide the emission factor for regional public transport (t.CO2-e/person.km).

Metropolitan travel

Note, the factor for metropolitan public transport is specific to EPA and is not recommended for direct external use.

The metropolitan per person kilometre emission factors for each mode of metropolitan public transport (bus, train and tram), which were used to develop per dollar expenditure metropolitan public transport emission factor, were also sourced from Simapro and are as follows:

  • Bus: 0.00012t.CO2-e/person.km
  • Rail: 0.00002t.CO2-e/person.km
  • Tram: 0.00012t.CO2-e/person.km.

Average distance travelled for each metropolitan mode of transport were estimated specifically for EPA based on the reasoning provided below:

  • Bus: 4 km – Reasoning: based on 1 x inner city return
  • Rail: 30 km – Reasoning: based on 1 x return trip to Carlton (200 Victoria Street, Carlton)
  • Tram: 2 km – Reasoning: based on 1 x CBD return fare.

Proportions of EPA fares represented by each mode of transport were estimated based on averages across 2012-2013 data:

  • Bus: 10 per cent 
  • Rail: 50 per cent 
  • Tram: 40 per cent.

Price of fare types were obtained from the Myki website as at July 2018. Full fare fees were assumed for all fares. Proportion of EPA fares for each fare type were estimated specifically for EPA based on 2012-13 data. These figures are as follows:

  • 2-hour, Zone 1: $4.30, 20 per cent 
  • 2-hour, Zone 2: $4.30, 5 per cent 
  • All-day, Zone 1: $3.52, 20 per cent
  • All-day, Zone 2: $3.52, 5 per cent 
  • All-day, Zone 1+2: $5.18, 50 per cent.
Factors

EFR: 0.000089 (t.CO2-e/person.km)

EFM: 0.00016 (CO2-e/$)

Note, the factor for metropolitan public transport is specific to EPA and is not recommended for direct external use.

See above for guidance on developing a bespoke emission factor.

Reference

Emission factor per person.km - train (metro) Vline, tram and bus: SimaPro 8.5.2.0
• Calculation methodology: IPCC 2007 GWP 100a V1.02
• SimaPro Unit Process (train metro): Transport, metropolitan train, SBB Mix/CH U/AusSD U
• SimaPro Unit Process (Vline): Transport, regional train, SBB Mix/CH U/AusSD U
• SimaPro Unit Process (tram): Transport, tram/CH U/AusSD U
• SimaPro Unit Process (bus): Transport, regular bus/CH U/AusSD U
Site specific expenditure per fare ($/fare) and average distance per fare (km/fare) for regional public transport: Fare and Funds, Vline website

CPI values: 640.10 Consumer Price Index Australia, March, Australian Bureau of Statistics

Cost of metropolitan fare type: Metropolitan Myki Fares, Myki website.

Other: estimations based on EPA specific internal data.

Staff commuting
Activity data Responses from survey of staff commuting patterns for a sample of EPA staff. The survey provided a snap shot of how staff commutes to and from EPA office locations over the period of 1 week. This includes modes of transport, distance travelled, vehicle fuel efficiencies and fuel types (including electricity).
Calculation method

Z = ∑Qi x EFi/1000

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Qi is the distance travelled (km) for mode of transport (i)

EFij is the scope 3 emission factors for each mode of transport (i) (kg.CO2-e/$)

Assumptions

Survey results are extrapolated across all FTE figures across 52 weeks. Emissions for walking and riding a bicycle are zero.

Motorbikes/scooters emission factor:

Emission factor for motorbikes/scooters (electric and non-electric) was developed by the following methodology:

 EF = PE x FEE x EFE + ∑Pi x FEi x ECi x EFi

Where:

EF = Emission factor for motorcycles (electric and non-electric) (kg.CO2-e/km)

PE = Percentage of electric motorcycles/scooters (per cent)

FEE = Fuel efficiency of electric motorcycles/scooters (kWh/100km)

EFE = Full cycle emission factors (Scope 2 + 3) for electricity (kg.CO2-e/kWh)

Pi = Percentage of non-electric motorcycles/scooters using fuel type (i) (per cent)

FEi = Fuel efficiency of non-electric motorcycles/scooters using fuel type (i) (L/100km)

EFi is based on information from the Australia Bureau of Statistics (ABS) in conjunction with conversation factors in the NGA Factors.

Percentages of motorcycle/scooters using each fuel type (including electricity) were calculated using responses from the commuter survey, and are as follows:

P: ULP=71.49, LPG=7.13, DSL=0, B20=7.13, E10=0, electricity = 14.26 (per cent)

Average fuel efficiency of all non-electric motorcycles/scooters was calculated using responses from the commuter survey, while the fuel efficiency of electric motorcycles/scooters was obtained as per an electric vehicle analysis performed by DinhT. and Slater B. These fuel efficiencies are as follows:

FE: non-electric = 4.86 L/100 km, electric = 2.55kWh/100 km

Energy content factors for fuels and full cycle emission factors for fuels and electricity were obtained from NGA Factors (July 2017) and are as follows:

ECi: ULP = 34.2, DSL = 38.6, LPG = 26.2, E10 = 33.12, B20 = 37.80, jet = 36.8 and oil = 39.70 (GJ/kL)

EF: ULP = 71.22, LPG = 64.50, DSL = 74.11, B20 = 60.52, E10 = 64.50 (kg.Co2-e/GJ), electricity = 1.18 (kg.CO2-e/kWh)

Motorcycles/scooters were assumed to be post-2004 vehicles and the emission factor for electricity represents the average for the Victorian grid.

Not all respondents who used a motorcycle/scooter provided answers to fuel use and efficiency. However, the developed motorcycle/scooter emission factor has been applied to all distances travelled by motorcycle/scooter.

Car emissions factors

Emission factor for each car type (hybrid, small, medium and large) were developed according to the following methodology:

EFi = (∑FEij x ECij x EFij)/Qi

Where:

EFi = Emission factor for car type (i) (hybrid, small, medium, large) (kg.CO2-e/km)

FEij = Fuel efficiency of car (j) of car type (i) (L/100km)

ECij = Energy content of fuel used by car (j) of car type (i) (GJ/L)

EFij = Emissions factor of fuel used by of car (j) of car type (i) (kg.CO2-e/GJ)

Qi = Number of cars of car type (i)

Fuel efficiencies and fuel type of each car were obtained from the commuter survey and are too numerous to state here.

Energy content factors and full cycle emission factors for fuels were obtained from NGA Factors (July 2017) and are as follows:

ECi: ULP = 34.2, DSL = 38.6, LPG = 26.2, E10 = 33.12, B20 = 37.80, jet = 36.8 and oil = 39.70 (GJ/kL)

EF: ULP = 71.22, LPG = 64.50, DSL = 74.11, B20 = 60.52, E10 = 64.50 (kg.CO2-e/GJ)

Cars were assumed to be post-2004 vehicles.

There were no electric cars used by staff to commute to work in 2017-18. As such, electricity as a fuel was not incorporated into calculations.

Not all respondents who used a car provided answers to fuel use and efficiency data requests. However, the car (hybrid, small, medium and large) emission factors have been applied to all distances travelled by each car type.

Taxi emission factors

The emission factor for taxis was developed using the following methodology:

EF = ∑Pi xFEi x ECi x EFi

Where:

EF = Emission factor for taxis (kg.CO2-e/km)

Pi = Proportion of taxis using fuel type (i)

FEi = Fuel efficiency of taxi vehicles consuming fuel type (i) (L/km)

ECi = Energy content factor for fuel type (i) (GJ/kL)

EFi = Full cycle emission factor (Scope 1 + 3), which includes the effect of an oxidation factor, for fuel type (i) (kg.CO2-e/GJ)

Taxis were assumed to be post-2011 for fuel efficiency data obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) survey on motor vehicle use and post-2004 for energy content and emission factors obtained from NGA Factors (2017).

Public transport emission factors

Emissions per person kilometre was sourced from SimaPro. SimaPro is a LCA software package with access to a range of international life cycle databases. In the Australian context, emission factors and other life cycle data is maintained in the Australian National Life Cycle Inventory Database (AusLCI). Emission factors for train (metro), tram and bus were taken directly from SimaPro. However, the available AusLCI unit process for regional train travel uses electricity as the fuel for operation. As Vline trains were assumed to be the sole mode of regional transport, this process was edited in recognition that Vline tains are diesel operated. An assumption of 1.7 MJ of energy from diesel use per person.km was used, taken from another SimaPro Unit process 'Rail - rural passenger/AU U', to provide the emission factor for regional public transport (t.CO2-e/person.km).

For public transport (tram, train - metro, train - regional, and bus) emission factor units are kg.CO2-e/person.km as one passenger does not take responsibility for the emissions of the entire unit. For all other modes of transport, kgCO2-e/km has been used as one passenger takes responsibility for the entire vehicle. This is with the exception of car-pooling where the sharing of emissions has already been incorporated into the emission factor. 

 Factors

EFi: walk = 0, bike = 0, motorcycle/scooter = 0.10, tram = 0.12, train (metro) = 0.02, train (Vline) = 0.16, bus = 0.12, taxi = 0.16, car-pooling = 0.11, hybrid car = 0.11, small car = 0.18, medium car = 0.20 and large car = 0.26 (kg.CO2-e/km)

Note, the factors for motorbike/scooters and cars (hybrid, small, medium and large) are specific to EPA staff survey responses and incorporate Victorian specific electricity emission factors. As such, they are not recommended for direct external use. See above assumptions for guidance on developing bespoke emission factors for these modes of transport.

Note, as the emission factor for taxis (kg.CO2-e/km) is developed using Victoria specific proportions of LPG and ULP, it is recommended that organisations recalculate the state specific emission factor for taxis using state specific fuel factors and proportions.

Reference

Fuel efficiency (electric bike): Electric Motorcycle Analysis (2014), Dinh T. & Slater B

Energy content factors for fuels and full cycle emission factors for fuels and electricity National Greenhouse Accounts (NGA) Factors conversion factors  (Department of Environment and Energy)

  • Table 4: Fuel combustion emission factors – fuels used for transport energy purposes (post-2004 vehicles)
  • Table 40: Scope 3 emission factors – liquid fuels and certain petroleum based products Fuel combustion emission factors – fuels used for transport energy purposes
  • Table 41: Scope 2 and 3 emission factors – consumption of purchased electricity by end users (Victoria)

Proportion of taxi vehicles consuming LPG (Victoria): The Economic, Social and Environmental Contribution of the Victorian Taxi Industry (Sept 2015), SGS Economics on behalf of VTA

Fuel efficiencies (non-electric): 92080 Survey of Motor Vehicle Use, Australia 12 months ended June 2016, Australian Bureau of Statistics

  • Table 14 -passenger vehicles (post-2004)

 Emission factors train (metro) Vline, tram and bus: SimaPro 8.5.2.0

  • Calculation methodology: IPCC 2007 GWP 100a V1.02
  • SimaPro Unit Process (train metro): Transport, metropolitan train, SBB Mix/CH U/AusSD U
  • SimaPro Unit Process (Vline): Transport, regional train, SBB Mix/CH U/AusSD U
  • SimaPro Unit Process (tram): Transport, tram/CH U/AusSD U
  • SimaPro Unit Process (bus): Transport, regular bus/CH U/AusSD U

Emission factor for car-pooling was obtained through consultation with the Victorian Department of Transport (VOT) 2014

Waste
Activity data Waste volume and waste data as obtained from EPA’s annual waste audit. The period of the waste audit is two weeks within the reporting period. Results are extrapolated for 52 weeks
Calculation method

Z = ∑(Qi x EFi/1000)

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Qi is the extrapolated total weight (kg) of each waste type (i)

EFi is the emission factor for each waste type (i) (kg.CO2-e/kg)

Assumptions

Waste audit results are extrapolated across all FTE figures across 52 weeks.

Recycled materials (secured documents, comingled recycling, e-waste, organic recycling/compost, paper, cardboard and other recycled materials) have zero net emissions.

Liquid, bottles, cans and containers, clean soft plastics, e-waste and other recycled materials which have gone to landfill have zero emissions as they are inert and do not break down.

Factors

EFi (kg.CO2-e/kg)

  • Recycled materials = 0
  • Liquid, bottles, cans & containers, clean soft plastics, e-waste and other recycled materials which have gone to landfill = 0
  • Cardboard, paper, paper cups, paper towels which have gone to landfill = 2.9
  • Compostable material which has gone to landfill = 1.9
  • Non-recyclable material which has gone to landfill = 1.2
  • Contamination in recycling = 1.2
Reference

NGA Factors (July 2017) Department of Environment and Energy

  • Emission factors for cardboard, paper, paper cups and paper towels to landfill: Table 42: Waste mix methane conversion factors (paper and cardboard)
  • Emission factor for compostable material to landfill: Table 42: Waste mix methane conversion factors (food)
  • Emission factor for non-recyclable material and contamination in recycling: Table 44: Waste emission factors for total waste disposed to landfill by broad waste stream category (commercial and industrial solid waste)

 

Office paper
Activity data Weight of paper purchased from paper supplier – expressed in kilograms (kg). Supplier data also includes additional information about the origin of paper manufacturing, recycled content and carbon neutrality status.
Calculation method

Z = ∑(Qi x EFi/1000)

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Qi is the total weight (kg) of each paper type (i)

EFi is the emission factor for each paper type (i) (kg.CO2-e/kg)

Assumptions EFi varies based on paper type. Paper type is determines by two factors: manufacturing location (domestic or international) and quantity of recycled content (per cent).

Paper certified as carbon neutral has zero net emissions.

Emissions factors for imported recycled paper and domestic virgin paper were developed using the emission factors for domestic recycled paper, obtained from Australian Paper's National Carbon Offset Standard (NCOS) Public Disclosure Summary for 206 and adding the emission factor differentials between domestic recycled paper and other paper types, as provided by Indufor. The methodology for each paper type is as follows:

Imported recycled paper emission factor

EFIR = EFDR + EDIR

Where:

EFIR = Emission factor for imported recycled paper (kg.CO2-e/kg)

EFDR = Emission factor for domestic recycled paper (kg.CO2-e/kg)

EDIR = Emission factor differential between imported recycled paper and domestic recycled paper (kg.CO2-e/kg).

Domestic virgin paper emission factor

 EFDV = EFDR + EDDV

Where:

EFDV = emission factor for domestic virgin paper (kg.CO2-e/kg)

EFDR = emission factor for domestic recycled paper (kg.CO2-e/kg)

EDDV = emission factor differential between domestic recycled paper and domestic recycled paper (kg.CO2-e/kg)

Imported virgin paper emission factor

The emission factor differential between the domestic recycled and imported virgin paper was not provided in the Indufor report. As such, it was assumed that the differential between imported virgin and imported recycled paper could be adequately estimated by the differential between domestic virgin and domestic recycled paper. This was added to the emission factor calculated for imported recycled above to obtain the emission factor for imported virgin paper:

EFIV = EFIR +EDDV

EFIV = Emission factor for imported virgin paper (kg.CO2-e/kg)

EFIR = Emission factor for imported recycled paper (kg.CO2-e/kg)

EDDV = Emission factor differential between domestic recycled paper and domestic recycled paper (kg.CO2-e/kg)

 

Factors     EFi: domestic virgin (2.68), domestic recycled (2.38), imported virgin (3.55), imported recycled (3.25) (kg.CO2-e/kg)
Reference Emission factors were obtained from RMIT’s Centre for Design and Ecoinvent.

Catering
Activity data Catering expenditure report from EPA’s finance system – expressed in Australia currency ($). Catering is broken down by food and beverage type.
Calculation method

Z = ∑(Qi x EFi/1000)

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Qi is the expenditure ($) for each food and beverage type (i)

EFij is the scope 3 emission factors for each food and beverage type (i) (kg.CO2-e/$)

Assumptions

Expenditure on each food and beverage type was estimated by taking the proportions of EPA catering spend on each food and beverage type as per survey results from one material catering supplier and multiplying the total spend by these proportions.

EFi from original source has been adjusted for inflation.

Factors EFi: Meat and meat products = 4.19, dairy products = 1.16, vegetable and fruit growing, hay, plant nurseries, flowers = 0.67, oils and fats = 0.94, flour, cereal foods, rice, pasta and other flour mill products = 0.67, bread, cakes, biscuits and other bakery products = 0.50, confectionary = 0.36, other = 1.21 (kg.CO2-e/$)
Reference  Emission factors were obtained from RMIT’s Centre for Design and Ecoinvent

Courier services
Activity data Courier services expenditure data from EPA’s finance system – expressed in Australia currency ($)
Calculation method

Z = ∑(Qi x EFi/1000)

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Qi =quantity of items for service type (i)

EFi = emission factor for each item type  (i) (kg.CO2-e/kg)

Assumptions Invoices for services via each provider were reviewed to identify the number of items delivered and the type of items delivered (courier, parcel or postage). For one provider, invoices were received monthly and contained a large number of items. For this provider the average number of items and average percentage represented by each type of item was calculated based on a sample of invoices. These averages were then applied to all invoices from this provider to estimate the number of each type of item delivered by this provider.
Factors   EFi: courier = 3.438, parcel = 1.285 and postage = 0.067 (kg.CO2-e/item)
Reference

Emission factors were obtained through consultation with Australia Post, which has developed an internal carbon tool to estimate the emissions of its products and services.

Printing and publication services
Activity data Printing and publication expenditure data from EPA’s finance system – expressed in Australia currency ($)
Calculation method

Z = Q x EF/1000

Where:

Z is the scope 3 emissions measured in t.CO2-e

Q is the expenditure ($) for printing and publications services

EF is the scope 3 emission factor for the printing and publication services (kg.CO2-e/$)

Assumptions EF is indexed for inflation
Factors EFi: 0.1090 (kg.CO2-e/$)
Reference

Emission factor for 2015-16 obtained through consultation with Finsbury Green, as per Life Cycle Assessment study undertaken by the Carbon Reduction Institute across 12 printing companies.

Page last updated on 9 Sep 2019